The Ray's Arithmetic series was created by Joseph Ray to help teach students the ins and outs of arithmetic. In 1800s America his arithmetic series was the most popular selling over 120,000,000 copies.
His original series consisted of four books: Primary Arithmetic, Intellectual Arithmetic, Practical Arithmetic and Higher Arithmetic. In more recent re-printings of the series answer keys have been produced for each of the four books as well as a teacher-parent guide and test examples.
In the following excerpts from Ray's New Intellectual Arithmetic you will find that the problems and prices used reflect life in the 1800s and in their own way illustrate what life was like for those students. In addition you will see that repetition was considered an extremely valuable component of learning as evidenced in this quote form the note to teachers found in the book, "It is obvious, that in a text-book the publishers should not occupy space with any thing more than the essentials of a solution."
Intellectual Arithmetic Selected Lessons